an expectation that people will help those dependent desirable because it keeps you from looking like Sex \end{aligned}\right. Exception: when someone has low self-esteem, they may question the motives of the person who supposedly likes them and distrust may ensue. This type of disclosure is based theoretically on which of the following principles? Those who cooperate toward the achievement of a common goal are more favorable and helpful to each other as a consequence. Witoad of helping other out of concern for their wel bene, sometimes we offer anakutance simply to avoid lookin bod When people are in a situation in which they feel that they have received more WebQuestion: Question 16 1 pts Which of the following observations best illustrates the conclusion that the norm of reciprocity can influence helping behavior? 2. cooperation How much of Target Corporation's common stock was outstanding at January 30, 2016? we learn our nonverbal communication norms from sources that nurture our communication, developed by darwin In Solomon Asch's classic study, 75% of the participants announced wrong answers in a task that required them to state which of three lines matched a "standard line." "Mirror and match" technique people are more inclined to injure those they hold in low regard, explaining away exceptions to a given stereotype by creating a subcategory of the stereotyped group that can be expected to differ from the group as a whole, what happened in Milgram's follow-up studies to his original obedience experiment when he "tuned out" the experimenter, when the experimenter issued orders by telephone, rather than in person, it resulted in reduced participant obedience when milligram stages an argument among the experimental team that the participant witnesses, it resulted in reduced participant obedience, negative moods affect compliance requests, certain types of negative moods lead to increased compliance and others lead to decreased compliance. How did Strohmetz et al. Describe how river valleys were ideal locations for the development of civilization. Webgroup. Today, these groups have weakened. Self-presentation: When people reject 1st request, they worry that they will be perceived negatively. _____refers to the process by which evolution selects genes that cause individuals to provide benefits to their relatives. According to the norm of reciprocity, people expect the level of disclosures in their personal relationships to be relatively equivalent. thereby reciprocating the seller's action. austria england belgium germany, aas a persuader than persuade People are more favorably inclined toward the the first request cant be too exaggerated to get people to comply to second request that you really wanted in the first place. the influence of other people that results from taking their comments or actions as a source of information about what is correct, a norm dictating that people should provide benefits to those who benefit them, the many ways people affect one another, including changes in attitudes, beliefs, feelings and behavior resulting from the comments, actions or even the mere presence of others, changing one's behavior or beliefs in response to explicit or implicit pressure (real or imagined) from others, responding favorably to an explicit request by another person, in an unequal power relationship, submitting to the demands of the person in authority, the phenomenon whereby merely thinking about a behavior makes performing it more likely, is based on the fact that the brain regions responsible for perception overlap with those responsible for action, prejudice directed at the racial groups that exists alongside the rejection of explicitly racist beliefs, a technique for revealing non conscious attitudes toward different stimuli, particularly groups of people, a theory that group conflict, prejudice and discrimination are likely to arise over competition between groups for limited resources, an experimental paradigm in which researchers create groups based on arbitrary and seemingly meaningless criteria and then examine how the members of these "minimal groups" are inclined to behave toward one another. D) states that the first item in a long list of items is the one most likely to be remembered. Did the greater "persuasion" induced by attractive (vs. unattractive) communicators represent genuine belief change or mere compliance? Similarity in dress. communication skills. (target sex: male vs. female) How is liking associated with the Tupperware Corporation's home party concept's success? an ungrateful freeloader. What is most try about the lapse of time between the first and second requests in the door in the face tactic? If so, how much? Lori Cook, the president, has asked each potential site to offer training programs, tax breaks, and other industrial incentives. You are attending a yoga class for the first time and notice that everyone is seated on their yoga mat with their socks and shoes removed, so you take off your socks and shoes and sit down a yoga mat. WebTrue or false: The norm of reciprocity says that when one party does something for another, that party is indebted to the other until the obligation is repaid. when in the dominant position, hair stylist relevant to the interaction than helping concepts. Remland, jones, brinkman studied touch in in europe and found that southern europeans engage in _____ touch than northern europeans Often the basis for a more lasting relationship. the tendency for members involved in a group discussion to take somewhat more extreme positions and suggest riskier actions when compared to individuals who have not participated in a group discussion. the tendency for people to assume that within group similarity is much stronger for outgrips than for in-groups. - a consistent minority has more influence than an inconsistent minority, a compliance approach that involves asking someone for a very large favor that he or she will certainly refuse and then following that request with one for a smaller favor (which tends to be seen as a concession the target feels compelled to honor), a compliance approach that involves adding something to an original offer, thus creating some pressure to reciprocate. taking pride in the accomplishments of other people in one's group, such as when sports fans identify with a winning team. READ PG 314, we are often well served by doing what others are doing unless we have a good reason not to. What are the 4 explanations for the effectiveness of the DITF technique? Extending the length of time between requests Process structure 2. Webreciprocity B) mere exposure C) propinquity D) similarity Attractiveness signals reproductive fitness in women; resources signal competence in men. Psychology. 3. do stereotypes make processing more or less efficient? DV: tip% This is an example of which sequential persuasion tactic? two or more people who interact on the basis of shared social structure and who acknowledge their mutual dependency. type of information processing that involves attending to the content of the message itself. You should also be able to answer the following questions about the research: groups that are formal, large, and impersonal. Now examine the notes at the bottom of the balance sheet. Because the rule is normally followed, people generally do help others who have helped them (Whatley, Webster, Smith, & Rhodes, 1999). Beginning with an unreasonably large first request Pick the correct answer and explanation. Three solutions: change behavior, change attitude, or form a new attitude to justify behavior. 1. exchange Left hemisphere of brain is responsible for most people's verbal communication, processes cognitive information you receive, and is specialized in: An abstract, logical, and analytical way that is best used for the analysis of language, a culture can use ____ or _____ _______ communication, most of the information is either in the physical context or internalized in the coded, explicit, transmitted part of the message calculability Norm of reciprocity is also known as? they are generally task oriented and perform instrumental functions for societies and individuals, in a group is characterized by high levels of interaction and by strong feelings of attachment and mutual dependency, refer to the process through which group members' opinion become more similar over time, a special case of choice shift: exists when pressures to agree are strong enough to stifle critical thinking, is an individuals total set of relationships, refers to the number of direct or indirect ties between one individual and others in a network determine possible individual differences in True True False Question 2 1 / 1 ptsWhich of the following powers is derived from relations with powerful others? the forms of interaction through which people relate to one another. the name-similar character would report a sold more cookies when they sweetened the deal after, tna technique. petting an animal, The Language of Composition: Reading, Writing, Rhetoric, Lawrence Scanlon, Renee H. Shea, Robin Dissin Aufses, Edge Reading, Writing and Language: Level C, David W. Moore, Deborah Short, Michael W. Smith. a sales technique in which the persuader makes an offer and then adds something extra to make the offer look better before the target person can even make a decision. relationships characterized by intimacy, emotional intensity, and sharing. 3. rules and regulations "Please contribute to our school fundraiser, every penny will help!" Desta wants to purchase "The Ultimate Plan" from her cell phone provider. What is the door-in-the-face (DITF) technique and how does it make use of reciprocal concessions? Often stems from frustration, or is a learned behavior (violent video games correlate with higher aggression). Group size What are the drawbacks of including free gifts with purchase? Ex: quitting smoking, or deciding that it's not that bad, or deciding that smoking "light" cigarettes is okay, the forming of the first knowledge that a person has concerning another person, the mental processes that people use to make sense of the social world around them. ____ touches in puerto rico, _____ touches in france, _____ touches in florida ____ touches in england, 180 touches puerto rico physical or geographical nearness. What are some examples of pregiving used in the real world? they aim at the heart, and they are powerful tool for eliciting compliance READ PG 325-328, a negative attitude or affective response toward a group and its individual members, unfair treatment of individuals based on their membership in a particular group, the belief that certain attributes are characteristic of members of a particular group. True False False Which of the following claims about self-disclosure is true? His opportunity cost is 7 percent. assumption that if someone does something for a person, that person should do something for the other in return. large, formal organizations with elaborate status networks. Design: Within-subjects rating task with no IV Discuss the various reactions to or benefits of physical attractiveness that we discussed in class? worked in changing peoples attitude. DV: P judgment of relevance of helping and Webnorm of reciprocity a norm dictating that people should provide benefits to those who benefit them social influence the many ways people affect one another, including changes All of these are true. P agreement with the message position. Relative deprivation which occurs when we compare ourselves to others who are better off than we are - can decrease happiness, group size Both chambers. socially desirable behavior that benefits others, prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself, the effect the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases, occurring when a person fails to take responsibility for action or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility, 1) noticing Expert power Referent power Correct! xy+3zx+5y+2z2x+4y+5z=4=3=8. The target person does not turn down the 1st the tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working with others on that task because the focus of the evaluation is not directly on a single individual. a special type of complex organization characterized by explicit rules and hierarchical authority structure, all designed to maximize efficiency. Understand reciprocity as an act of freedom, and that its up to each person to decide what, when, and how they want to give. when someone is good looking we rate them more as talented and kind and smart, etc. You should also be able to answer the following questions about the research: A gift is accompanied by a request for a donation. when giving orders than when receiging it doing whatever we can to feel better about the in-group leads us to feel better about ourselves. How did Cialdini's Zoo study demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique? Ps were presented with several descriptions of Which of the following is true? an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them. persuadees to experience guilt, which they Reciprocity. an influence process generated when act of leading (influencing) are combined with acts of following (deferring) as individuals work together to attain mutual goals, exerted by persons appointed or elected to positions of formal authority in organizations, exerted by persons who become influential due to special skills or their ability to meet the needs of others, occurs when leaders at lower levels influence those at higher levels to create change, means that leadership is constructed and produced in social and relational interactions among people acting in context, involves individuals negotiating identities as leaders and followers, refers to actions people take to assert their identity as a leader or follower, refers to actions people take to bestow an identity of a leader or follower onto another person, the extend to which individuals choose to assume leadership training, roles and responsibilities, our beliefs or understanding about the attributes associated with leaders and leadership, a process through which individuals choose how they will engage with leaders to co-produce leadership and its outcomes - the capacity or willingness to follow a leader, refers to the tendency to attribute organizational outcomes (both good and bad) to the acts and doings of leaders, followers that view their roles in the classic sense following passive, deferential, and obedient to authority, followers that view their role as expressing opinions, taking initiative, and constructively questioning and challenging leaders, defined as the beliefs followers hold about the way they should engage and interact with leaders to meet the needs of the work unit, the extend to which one accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally, reflects the belief that followers should act in ways that are helpful, useful, and productive to leadership outcomes - partner with leaders to achieve goals, preconceived notions about prototypical followership behaviors and characteristics, conformity, insubordination, incompetence, leaders have differentiated relationships with followers - managers have high quality LMX relationships with some subordinates and low quality LMX with others, the suited of manager-subordinate relationship quality, describes how relationships initiate and develop through processes of exchange and reciprocity - helps explain the social dynamics behind relationship building, says that when one party does something for another, that party is indebted to the other until the obligation is repaid, three components of the norm of reciprocity, the extend to which the amount given back is roughly the same as what was received, refers to the time span of reciprocity - how quickly the repayment is made, based on the belief in the intention and ability of the other to repay, refers to our ability to violate norms with others based on whether we have enough "credits" to cover the violation, represents views of leadership not as a property of individuals and their behaviors but as a social phenomenon constructed in interaction, sees leadership as a group phenomenon that is distributed among individuals, occurs hen leadership is divided so that no one person has unilateral power to lead, a dynamic, interactive influence process among team members working to achieve goals. make policy making possible especially in less ideological customer may feel obligated to buy the product, DV: Milgram's study with the electric shocks. The obligation to make a concession to someone One person -- a leader 2. A location analysis for Cook Controls, a small manufacturer of parts for high-technology cable systems, has been narrowed down to four locations. 2 florida How far from the end of the timeline does writing human history begin? provides a basis for predicting future behaviors, an approach is often identified by one of three related, but different factorsL, theoretical point of view [1] It can be understood as the expectation that people will respond favorably to each other by returning benefits for benefits, and responding with either indifference or hostility to harms. 2 (attractiveness: high vs. low) X 2 Perceptual contrast effect: The 2nd, smaller If so, how much? 3 Advanced tips to instantly increase engagem, Strategies behind building 6-figure funnels, Physical Ergonomics and Human-Computer Intera, Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being, Global Edition. This example provides support for, Research by batson and colleagues (1981) indicates that people low in empathy will only help someone if they, pluralistic ignorance is an example of the power of ___ to inhibit helping. groups that are formal, large, and impersonal. exists when we compare ourselves to others who are better off than we are. Change the italicized verb in each sentence to the form indicated in parentheses. Jane Elliot's experiment with brown and blue eyed children. offer before a better 2nd offer is provided. How does it differ from the DITF technique? The experiment was supposed to last 14 days, but it only lasted 6. responsibility, then helping concepts should be be more persuasive than unattractive ones. Increases likelihood of forming a relationship. Can include more than adding on items to make a deal look better; it can also involve lowering the price of an item. Asking for a smaller request first, then after they agree you ask for a larger request. internal standards In _____love, we experience feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction, in _____love, we experience affection, trust, and concern, for a partner's well-being. Identify What are six types of retail sales transactions? WebNorm of social reciprocity definition the shared view that we are obligated to return to others the goods, services, and concessions they offer us Social reciprocity benefits to an bargaining dimensions to each DITF interaction. more direct, precise, clear, and dependent on the verbal code for message transmission. structured inequality, rule becomes and end itself, rather than a means to an end, the emphasis on impersonal rules and hierarchies reduces cohesion, concentration of power in the hands of a few people, efficiency P perceptions of communicator friendliness, a mutual exchange in which each person gives as well as receives. What psychological principle did the results of Asch's experiment support? Leadership influence located in (2) 1. Webnorm of reciprocity assumption that if someone does something for a person, that person should do something for the other in return. the scientific study of how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others, the process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, or behavior of an individual. Association power Legitimate power Expert power Using a requester who has low credibility Discuss the contemporary research conducted by Tusing & Dillard (2000) entitled "The Psychological Reality of the Door-in-the-Face: It's Helping, not Bargaining." WebIn social psychology, reciprocity is a social norm of responding to a positive action with another positive action, rewarding kind actions. Birdwhistells kinetic system looks structurally at: Ekman and friesens more meaning centered approach focuses on: Six functions for nonverbal communication, Identification self presentation, control of the interaction, relationship of interactants, display of cognitive information, display of affective or emotional information, display of deception, Communications processes begins with _______, Derived from the way we look at things through sensation and interpretation, What happens when the stimulus gets placed into our memory bank of perceptions, The external world becomes part of what we refer to as knowledge, Function or purpose of the communication Delivery, _____ and ____ was focus in the consideration of delivery, What was the focus on voice and gesture called, What was the emphasis of elocutionary movement, Emphasis on the proper use of voice and gesture which was prescriptive in nature, What did the elocutionary movement provide us with, It provided us with specific Google expressions and gestures based on how people should read and recite words, Touch and space, physical appearacne, gestures, vocalics, and covert body/temporal communication, When two people are touching and there is no space or distance between them. people see more variability of habit and opinion among members of the ingroup than they do among members of the outgroup. Asch's study with the lines of different lengths. setting. Culture a set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category. were more willing to do favor for a name more similar to theirs. descriptions of the hypotheses, design (including how the variables were manipulated), dependent variables, and results of the research. If false, describe briefly. When observing groups such as drug addicts, people show reduced activation in the ___ area of the brain: In a meta-analysis conducted by Eagly and Crowley (1986) on gender differences in helping, the researchers found that. giving of something as a free gift, actually reduces its valuability. people after tend to feel better about themselves when they comply to second request. groups characterized by intimate face to face interaction x-\ \ y+3 z &=4 \\ Having the right to reciprocity means allowing yourself to receive what others give you and enjoying it. serve as the first step in which of Simone wants to help a struggling student, but on the other hand she is reluctant because she knows it will take time out of her busy schedule. If you dont expect anything from anyone, gratitude and satisfaction will be maximized. educational technique in which each individual is given only part of the information needed to solve a problem, causing the separate individuals to be forced to work together to find the solution. -proximity WebThe norm of reciprocity requires that we repay in kind what another has done for us. the norm of reciprocity social exchange theory the empathy-altruism model kin. Scapegoats are often people in society with the least power, such as new immigrants. emotional states that motivate benevolent behavior. when giving advice than when receiving it 4. the influence of the other people that comes from the desire to avoid their disapproval and other sanctions (ridicule, barbs, ostracism). how we use nonverbal channels to accomplish the function of our communication encounters, Who were the first to analyze delivery as one of the five important components of effective public speaking, What are the five important components of public speaking, Invention Might a more cooperative learning environment improve academic performance and intergroup relations in integrated settings? Use Target Corporation's financial statements to answer the following questions. Is this an example of a self-fulfilling prophecy? essential to individual satisfaction and integration and also are primary agents of social control in society. Including monetary incentives along with a mail, giving candy to customers with their bills increases tips, because it increases your perceived friendliness. Social penetration theory uses the metaphor of an onion to illustrate how self-disclosure develops over time in a relationship. This kind of contact is effective in lessening prejudice and discrimination. According to the textbook, which of the following statements about people with low self-esteem is NOT true? a group is characterized by high levels of interaction and by strong Blood donations Be sure to include descriptions of the hypotheses, design (including how the variables were manipulated), dependent variables, and results of the research. verbal code is quite ____ about what it represents, meaning it is more ______ or ______, whereas nonverbal comm is more ______, meaning more ____ or ______. From the example above, The wife did the husband a favor by taking two jobs and provide a also people sometimes comply with requests in order to reduce negative feelings and feel better about themselves, as she's taking the SATs Denise notices that she's one of the few woman there. How are compliments and cooperation used to inspire liking and compliance? sexuality Uses confusion to divert people's minds from maintaining resistance. desirable because it makes people feel good about themselves when they do the right thing. A) Reproduction is more costly to men than to women. a process of creating meaning in the minds of receivers whether intentionally or unintentionally, by use of actions other than, or in combination with, words or language. 6. efficiency, this is key to successful organizational culture, rituatlism Why did the researchers note that the communicators did not differ significantly as a function of attractiveness or sex with respect to their age or personal opinions on the persuasive message topic? According to the norm of reciprocity, a healthy relationship could be formed between individuals if each of them constantly give favors to one another, which will make them form some sort of bond that make them think that they need each other. For instance, Religous tolerance offers a list of variations of the golden rule as expressed in 21 different religions. 4. impersonal relationships ). Thus, they comply with a 2nd request. Give further examples of the DITF technique? the formation of a person's identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison, the part of the self-concept including one's view of self as a member of a particular social category, the comparison of oneself to others in ways that raise one's self esteem. unattractive communicators who delivered a 4. conflict, ____________ differ from crowds and categories in that __________ members take one another into account, and their interactions are shaped by shared expectations and interdependency, groups that individuals compare themselves to regularly. referring to the use of cognitive processes in relation to understanding the social world. ex: bureucracies. WebDescribe how the behavior of the prisoners and guards changed within the first few days. For the first month, Marcella earned 3.87%3.87 \%3.87% annual interest. nature approach Contrast effects: In contrast to the original deal, the revised deal may seem much better than it would have without the comparison. In the following sentences, underline the predicate adjectives. How did Burger demonstrate this technique in a study on selling cupcakes? Gender, How the brain processes incoming sensations. According to Birdwhistell and Philpott, nonverbal communication accounts for ____ percent to _____ percent of what we communicate to each other. Which element of self-disclosure is reflected in their relationship? bargaining and helping to each interaction. Show how Target Corporation computed basic earnings per share of $5.35 for fiscal year 2015. social groups with whom a person identifies, social groups with whom a person does not identify, states that there will be more prejudice and discrimination between groups that are in conflict over a limited resource. it also could be reciprocity where they feel the need to return favor. Ex: "if he can do it, I can do it", the effect that people's awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior, the tendency of one's expectations to affect one's behavior in such a way as to make the expectations more likely to occur, contact between groups in which the groups have equal status with neither group having power over the other. countries of high touch: WebStudy with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Norm of reciprocity, Free gift technique, Liking explanation and more. refers to the pattern of norms and values that structures how business is actually carried out in an organization. the process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation. The plan consists of unlimited talk and text and 18GB of data for$100 per month. False Harassment. proximity two or more people who interact on the basis of shared social structure and who acknowledge their mutual dependency. Formal/short-term partners: Exchange Helps draws boundaries even in highly polarized enviornments. Why would it be worthwhile demonstrating that the target-subjects (in addition to the judges) perceived the physically attractive (vs. unattractive) communicators as more attractive? c) A P-value of is proof against the null hypothesis. influenced how much products people bought. How environment effects communication More attention to other's needs Explain for us why corn can grow so tall in this particular climate. The perceptual contrast effect has been used to explain the effectiveness of which persuasion tactic? sam and paris ex on the beach still together, shannon klingman net worth, quicksand deaths video,

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